A brief Introduction to C99 – Part1

Chapter 1 – A Brief Introduction to C/C++

This chapter will introduce the reader to the brave world of C and C++. Working with C is not an easy task, it’s a world outside, it takes time to be a good developer on C. I learn C and C++ at high school and I never stopped since then. Sometimes, I took time to achieve my tasks too nowadays. To become a good coder, you must struggle.

The days are to be fought; think you have a goal to be one of them.

This chapter will be brief, I will talk about variables, enumeration, struct, perhaps matrices to 4x4x4, are harder to achieve. As C ansi does not have OOP (Object Oriented Programming), I will talk when I wrote about templating or common use STL.

In C or C++ even on Java, every language has a way to make enclosures, iterations, loops.

 In this chapter, I would like to present if/else, while, for(loop).

For instance, an if clause can be to make decisions.



return num1;


return num2;


Imagine do you want to make an infinite loop for an Application Non- Ending Loop, being hardcoded like Amiga OS or write hardcoded POSIX software Kernel.



//do the task;


Are so many ways to do it. A for loop is more like to run in matrices, think on a matrix, a follow the list. A for loop can be considered to run a list, dictionary a lambda way to sort.


for(i=0; i<=list[i]; i++)


//do the task;



Structs are a sort of function to struct a type of elements with n elements inside


struct [structure tag] {

   member definition;

   member definition;


   member definition;

} [one or more structure variables]; 

Struct Books Exemple:

struct Books {

   char  title[50];

   char  author[50];

   char  subject[100];

   int   book_id;

} book; 


#include <stdio.h>

#include <string.h>

struct Books {

   char  title[50];

   char  author[50];

   char  subject[100];

   int   id_book;


int main( ) {

   struct Books Book1;        /* Declare Book1 of type Book */

   struct Books Book2;        /* Declare Book2 of type Book */

   /* book 1 specification */

   strcpy( Book1.title, “C Programming”);

   strcpy( Book1.author, “Nuha Ali”);

   strcpy( Book1.subject, “C Programming Tutorial”);

   Book1.book_id = 6495407;

   /* book 2 specification */

   strcpy( Book2.title, “Telecom Billing”);

   strcpy( Book2.author, “Zara Ali”);

   strcpy( Book2.subject, “Telecom Billing Tutorial”);

   Book2.book_id = 6495700;

   /* print Book1 info */

   printf( “Book 1 title : %s\n”, Book1.title);

   printf( “Book 1 author : %s\n”, Book1.author);

   printf( “Book 1 subject : %s\n”, Book1.subject);

   printf( “Book 1 book_id : %d\n”, Book1.id_book);

   /* print Book2 info */

   printf( “Book 2 title : %s\n”, Book2.title);

   printf( “Book 2 author : %s\n”, Book2.author);

   printf( “Book 2 subject : %s\n”, Book2.subject);

   printf( “Book 2 book_id : %d\n”, Book2.id_book);

   return 0;



Enumeration (or enum) is a user defined data type in C. It is mainly used to assign names to integral constants, the names make a program easy to read and maintain.

enum State {

true = 1, false = 0


// In both of the below cases, “day” is

// defined as the variable of type week.

enum week{Mon, Tue, Wed};

enum week day;

// Or

enum week{Mon, Tue, Wed, Thur,Fri}day; // An example program to

//demonstrate working

// of enum in C


enum week{Mon, Tue, Wed, Thur, Fri, Sat, Sun}day;

int main()


    //enum week day;

    day = Wed;


    return 0;

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